IFS Applications – The Proven Path To Enterprise Agility

IFS Applications is a single, integrated application suite that enables global and demanding businesses to successfully handle four core processes:

White paper: Planning for change

Being in the right place at the right time is a vital business skill. How can you do that in a world where future is constantly changing? Responsiveness to unfolding events becomes key. Long-lived investments in enterprise software must deliver this responsiveness. This white paper reveals five responsiveness challenges for enterprise software investments.

White paper download: Planning for change

Full-Suite ERP

IFS Applications includes financials, human resources, quality management, document management, customer relationship management (CRM), business intelligence, sustainability management and other core functionality to facilitate full life cycle management of products, assets, customers, projects and more. Explore our product with this interactive graphic:

IFS Financials

IFS’ financial components give you a comprehensive view of your business from a variety of perspectives. When you spot a trend worth investigating, you can drill in to the appropriate financial transactions and scrutinize them in detail. These components enhance control at all levels of the organization and support regulatory needs around the world.

Cash Flow
FS Cash Flow™ offers you flexible liquidity analyses based on a variety of scenarios that you select. Use customer orders, purchase orders, accounts receivable and payable to generate ­projections of your cash position. Use this information to analyze your company for better cash management and strategic decision-making.
Fixed Assets
IFS Fixed Assets™ makes it easier to strategically manage your company’s fixed assets. A fully integrated accounting tool, it includes multi-country support for depreciation methods, making it the perfect fixed asset tool for a global organization.
Accounts Receivable
IFS Accounts Receivable™ simplifies customer invoicing and payment processes. It automatically handles coding of routine transactions. Integrated with customer orders and accounting rules functionality, it helps you minimize errors and simplify routines.
eInvoice
IFS eInvoice™ improves and automates the supplier invoicing workflow by reducing the amount of invoices needing manual registration. Invoice scanning as well as true electronic invoices are enabled. Advanced rules for authorization and matching with purchase orders significantly speed up the invoice processing. Events messages and history logs further improve the process and make follow-up easier.
Accounts Payable
IFS Accounts Payable™ simplifies handling of your supplier invoices and payment processes. Support for self-billing reduces invoice handling. A variety of currency and payment options contributes to the agility of the component while follow-up and analysis capabilities ensure full control.
Consolidated Accounts
IFS Consolidated Accounts™ enables you to consolidate data from any number of companies in a single location. You can map different charts of accounts, budgets, and currencies from subsidiary to parent. Snapshots of subsidiary data taken during the period enable management to view up-to-date consolidated financial information whenever needed.
Budget Management
IFS Budget Management™ lets you manage the planning, budgeting, and forecasting workflow in IFS Applications. Use it to set your corporate strategy and to fix targets for the scorecard and budget templates. Continuous planning and rolling forecasting allow you to monitor and update the process at all stages. This component is designed for integration with Microsoft® Excel®.
Project Finance
IFS Project Finance™ gives you a clear, real-time view of project finances—even while the project is running. You can also drill down into the data for more detailed analysis when required. The integrated project accounting rules provide you with support for different methods of capitalization and revenue recognition requirements.
General Ledger
IFS General Ledger™ ensures you have a solid base for financial analysis and reporting, plus powerful simulation capabilities, including multiple general ledgers and advanced distribution rules. It helps you to gather and consolidate financial events from all systems and subsidiaries within a corporate group.

IFS Human Resources

Our human resources components save time and money by helping you manage your company’s most valuable resources cost-effectively. These components provide fast, accurate analysis, meeting all your company’s key needs for personnel development. They provide essential processes for workforce management and successful strategic human capital management.

Employee Self-Service
IFS Employee Self-Service™ gives you a complete manager and employee self-service tool that ensures high data quality and employee involvement. Managers perform HR-related tasks through web pages that are designed to match their needs. Employees update their own ­employee data, apply for internal job opportunities, etc.
Health & Safety
IFS Health & Safety™ enables you to streamline health and safety processes in your organization in line with the standards specified by regulatory bodies. It covers a wide area of functionality, from incident & illnesses tracking to actions taken, safety management, medical examinations, material hazard information and first aid licenses.
Payroll Administration
IFS Payroll Administration™ enables you to simplify and manage all your payroll procedures. Complete payroll solutions are available in selected markets, and a standard interface to third-party payroll solutions is available throughout the world.
Time & Attendance
IFS Time & Attendance™ makes it easier for you to manage information on the working hours of your employees. Wage code distribution and the calculation of flexi-time, overtime, shift premiums, etc. are automatic and checked against the central rules. Moreover, you save critical time when employee input simultaneously feeds payroll and project, maintenance, or production systems.
Expense Management
IFS Expense Management™ helps you streamline and simplify your company’s traditional expense management and reporting system by automating everything from tax calculations to travel allowances. Employees on the move can use the web interface to report their expenses no matter where they are.
Training Management
IFS Training Management™ provides comprehensive support for organizations with extensive internal training operations. It enables you to compile internal training requirements and use them as input for planning training events while automatically updating employee files after courses have been completed.
Employee Development
IFS Employee Development™ helps you create strategic human resource plans and processes for your company by defining your organization’s skill/competency requirements and mapping them to your available resources. Once the requirements are defined and mapped, you can use them for recruitment, employee development, or a listing of outdated or overrepresented competencies.
Recruitment
IFS Recruitment™ makes it easier for you to simplify the hiring of new employees by supporting all hiring processes from the personnel requisition to the final transfer of data to the employee file.
Employee Administration
IFS Employee Administration™ allows you to conveniently map position and organization structures within your company into the system and define work requirements and benefits ­applicable to employees. Providing controlled access to employee data, it simplifies the maintenance of employee information while serving as the foundation for the comprehensive operation of all employee-related processes.

IFS Engineering

Our engineering components make it easier to specify and configure design elements, products, assemblies and facilities. The components ensure quality by streamlining the administration of all related documentation, including revisions. Everyone in the organization gets the information they need, providing continuously updated data for technical, administrative, and financial decisions. Integration between purchasing, engineering, and manufacturing processes enables a true cross-company picture.

Project Delivery
IFS Project Delivery™ lets you coordinate complex deliveries throughout their lifecycles—from tendering, detailed design, procurement, manufacturing, and/or assembly to testing, delivery, after-sale support, and maintenance.
Commissioning
IFS Commissioning™ enables you to ensure that all parts of a facility or industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client though a safe and orderly handover. You can do this in the application through mechanical completion packages and punch lists (also known as snag lists), for example
Asset Design
IFS Asset Design™ gives you powerful tools for engineering processes and support for Internet-based collaboration. It is a multidisciplinary engineering framework for creating and maintaining information about objects in plants, power grids, fiber-optic networks, and many other types of structures or facilities. You can directly import project information from suppliers and consultants. Tightly integrated with IFS Project and IFS Purchasing, it supports EPCI projects and material management efficiently. Together with IFS Maintenance, it provides complete asset lifecycle support, even for large revamp projects, without disrupting the maintenance processes.
Engineering Change Management
IFS Engineering Change Management™ simplifies and speeds up your engineering change processes. It lets you receive, review, check, and approve changes before implementing change orders.
PDM Configuration
IFS PDM Configuration™ supports engineering design, configuration control, and follow-up of items and products. Advanced revision management capabilities help you comply with complex regulations. Its powerful “best-fit” search and copy functionality lets you reuse items and designs, making it easier to standardize products and parts.

IFS Projects

Our project components, together with the other IFS components, provide a completely integrated set of tools to manage the complete project lifecycle. Fully integrated with other IFS components such as financials, procurement, inventory, customer orders, manufacturing, engineering, human resources, document management, and asset and service management, the solution is used by many types of businesses who use project principles to manage their business, including project-based manufacturing, engineering, construction, contracting and infrastructure, and R&D organizations.

Project Reporting
IFS Project Reporting™ allows you to process project cost transactions against a project including time, expenses, materials and other types of miscellaneous costs. You can also use the component as the basis for billing clients where reimbursable contracts are needed and attach price lists to projects to define the rates to be used.
Risk Management
IFS Risk Management™ allows you to define project risk assessments. User-definable risk templates help establish consistent working practices. Potential problems and consequences are defined so you can manage the actions and responses required to mitigate the risk.
Project Budgeting
IFS Project Budgeting™ provides you with comprehensive functionality to manage project cost control. User-definable project forecast types enable you to support multiple versions of project estimates, budgets, forecasts, reviews, etc. The system supports Estimate to Complete (ETC) and Estimate at Complete (EAC) principles. Budgets can be controlled by cost (CBS) and work (WBS) breakdown structures. Spreading rules are available, including S Curves and Straight Line logic.
Planning and Scheduling
IFS Planning and Scheduling™ allows you to schedule project schedules in IFS. Gantt display options are available, and the planning logic supports dependencies and constraints. Resource planning and simulation are also supported. IFS Applications provides bi-directional integration to tools such as Microsoft Project® or Primavera®.
Project Management
IFS Project Management™ allows you to create projects using user-defined WBS. Templates can be used to establish business process consistency. Costs, revenue, hours and quantities can be associated with the project WBS. Progress and Earned value are supported. All costs are tracked at all levels of the WBS, including Estimate, Baseline, Latest Forecast, Committed, Earned Value, and Actual. The Projects component holds the project plan, which is then used to generate the sub-plans for other areas such as procurement, engineering, manufacturing, installation and construction.
Sub-Contract Management
IFS Sub-Contract Management™ makes it easier for you to manage simple or complex ­sub-contractor activities, e.g. if you sub-contract a construction phase, the component allows you to easily manage the scope. You can track progress and make valuations based on valuation methods such as progress and quantity installed. The solution has strong change management capabilities so you can more easily manage variations to scope. You can send work instructions to your sub-contractors, receive invoices and applications from the sub-contractor, and generate valuation certificates.
Sales Contract Management
IFS Sales Contract Management™ enables you to manage the lifecycle of your sales contracts from bid and tendering through completion and handover. You also get application-for-payment functionality and can more easily control defined mark-up and retention rules, certificates, and payments. You can generate invoices and applications based on a number of flexible options including progress, quantity, sales value, cost plus and milestones. Reimbursable project invoicing is also supported. The component has strong change management capabilities to manage ­variations to scope.

IFS Manufacturing

Our manufacturing components combine a simple, highly automated flow for taking care of repetitive tasks with advanced management-by-exception functionality to trap and action exceptions. This powerful, multifaceted solution supports planning, execution, control, and analysis in many types of manufacturing, in all phases of the manufacturing process, and for all your employees. It also supports lean principles as well as mixed-mode manufacturing, where different types of processing coexist in the same manufacturing environment system.

Engineer-to-Order
IFS Engineer-to-Order™ makes it easier for you to handle customer-specific design by integrating projects and product structures. The ordered product structures can be a combination of stand­ard products and project-specific structures. You use the project plan to initiate procurement, and you can register every change , ensuring optimal flexibility, control, and cost-effectiveness in the delivery project.
Configure | Make | Assemble-to-Order
IFS Configure | Make | Assemble-to-Order™ helps you manage and simplify production to order, from advanced make-to-order (MTO) to simple assemble-to-order (ATO), and for order-unique design as well as characteristics-based configuration and standard products.
Make-to-Project
IFS Make-to-Project™ gives you greater agility when manufacturing in a project context by enabling you to connect shop orders, multilevel pegged (DOP) structures, purchase orders, and other items directly to project activities. Inventory functionality can be performed in a project context, and you can transfer material between project activities, and between project inventory and standard inventory.
Batch Manufacturing
IFS Batch Manufacturing™ offers you a competitive edge through more efficient production planning, on-time deliveries, and higher product quality.
Repetitive Manufacturing
IFS Repetitive Manufacturing™ improves your efficiency by reducing, and even eliminating, transactions in the manufacturing process. Combined with IFS Planning, you can create a hybrid pull/push system using material requirements planning (MRP) to generate production line schedules, plan supplier schedules, and dimension Kanban circuits.
Component MRO
IFS Component MRO™ enables you to optimize asset availability and gain complete control of costs and risk, revenue and scope. It comes with a user-friendly GUI that promotes productivity so that you can make your supply chains more agile and efficient, and offer on-time delivery with confidence.
Shop Order
IFS Shop Order™ gives you a comprehensive tool for monitoring and controlling shop orders throughout their lifecycles to ensure that what you plan is what you make. It provides you with support for many production models and is closely integrated with IFS Costing and IFS Inventory.
Constraint-Based Scheduling
IFS Constraint-Based Scheduling™ optimizes your production schedule so you can quickly respond to changes in the marketplace or customer demands. By identifying production bottlenecks, you can deliver on time and keep production costs under control. Multisite, multilevel capability check gives you an advanced tool for accurate delivery time estimation. The component also includes Advanced Planning Board, an off-line scheduling planning tool which you can ­operate simultaneously with the on-line client.
Shop Floor Reporting
IFS Shop Floor Reporting™ is an efficient, easy-to-use way for your employees to quickly report production information. It gives you the status of your operations, the quantity of manufactured and discarded items, and the accumulated operator hours.
Costing
IFS Costing™ enables you to make better-informed decisions by providing you with insight into the costs associated with your company’s products. It supports traditional costing, activity-based costing (ABC), or a combination of both.

IFS Supply Chain

Our distribution components, together with manufacturing, form the basis of your supply chain management solution. These components offer the simplicity you need to better visualize product flows and use the system efficiently, and you can easily adapt to different distribution models and working methods. They give you the agility you need to grow and support change throughout your enterprise and let you take advantage of real-time communication throughout the order-to-delivery chain.

Demand Forecasting
IFS Demand Forecasting™ allows you to plan visually using graphical representations. A highly collaborative, graphical, and interactive tool, it is one of the most sophisticated and easy-to-use forecasting tools on the market today.
Multisite Planning
IFS Multisite Planning™ helps you improve on-time delivery and customer satisfaction by better forecasting supply and demand for your products when working in a multisite environment. You can develop a comprehensive master production schedule, calculate time-phased material net requirements and optimal lot sizes, create distribution orders, and then calculate the production capacity needed.
Inventory Replenishment
IFS Inventory Replenishment™ allows you to execute differentiated, highly automated inventory planning integrated with the demand forecast. It also makes inventory replenishment more agile by providing a multitude of planning strategies such as economic order quantity, service-level-driven safety stocks and special models to handle slow-moving parts.
Distribution
IFS Distribution™ makes it easier for you to interact with customers by providing flexible support to manage various kinds of charges, campaigns, promotions and rebates. It also gives you support for standardized integration between trading partners using GS1 including support for GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) and SSCC (Serial Shipment Container Code).
Customer Orders
IFS Customer Orders™ lets you handle your customer order processing at one or more ­locations and is a fundamental part of the IFS Supply Chain Management (SCM) solution. IFS Customer Orders provides a multitude of pricing options for your business, enabling you to work with tailored pricing models.
Procurement
IFS Procurement™ lets you streamline your procurement administration and is a fundamental part of the IFS Supply Chain solution. It helps you achieve better pricing from suppliers through centralized purchasing and is well suited for multisite companies operating in the global environment.
Warehousing
IFS Warehousing™ helps you manage the entire warehousing process from goods receipt to point of issue. The solution includes comprehensive support for traceability, shelf life management, consignment stocks and statistics. Multisite environments are fully supported to facilitate movement of goods between sites.

IFS Sales & Service

Our sales and service components provide business processes vital to customer relationship management (CRM). They manage the customer interaction chain from the sales lead, through the sales cycle, to the ongoing support and service of the customer. Our sales and service concept allows a business to focus on where it adds value to the customer through product, service, and suppor.

Component Repair
IFS Component Repair™ enables you to manage the entire business flow from intake of parts to be repaired to final invoicing. The solution provides support for simpler repairs using shop orders or work orders depending on preference, and also supports advanced/multilevel structure repairs with dispositioning functionality in the shop order environment. Repairs under service contracts are supported as well as external service orders.
Mapping
IFS Mapping™ enables you to visualize driving routes, alert on due jobs and efficiently plan last-minute jobs. It provides virtual road and satellite maps with overlay information about ­ongoing and planned jobs and is integrated with Microsoft Bing Maps for Enterprise (Software + Service). Any business object such as customers and customer orders in IFS Applications can be configured to be visualized in the map.
Call Center
IFS Call Center™enables you to effectively provide call center services to your customers for field service or product support. IFS Call Center also supports thorough analytics by bundling a set of prepackaged measures for all parts of the process.
Dynamic Scheduling
IFS Dynamic Scheduling™ enables you to optimize your mobile workforce by dynamically scheduling multiple business-defined constraints, such as skills and SLAs, to improve customer service and work efficiency. A highly scalable scheduling solution, it includes the Dynamic Scheduling Engine (DSE) and an intuitive scheduling workbench for exception management. It is available both on-premise and through the Cloud (Software as a Service).
Field Service
IFS Field Service™ enables your service operations to streamline their customer-focused business processes from quotation and order taking to invoicing and analysis. It also supports field service and workforce scheduling as well as accurate pricing within and beyond warranty periods.
Service Contract Management
IFS Service Contract Management™ lets you accurately specify and control the service level for each of your customers and service activities. It improves efficiency by automatically checking and following up on items agreed in the contract.
Sales Configurator
IFS Sales Configurator™ guides your sales personnel and customers smoothly and ­conveniently through your selection of products, product characteristics, and accessories. An easy-to-use “product advisor” builds configurations through a series of questions that precisely define requirements.
Web Store
IFS Web Store™ gives you an out-of-the-box solution for web-based order management and an ideal tool for spare parts sales. You get a variety of ways of searching for and selecting products, as well as price and availability checks, customer registration, and order tracking.
CRM
IFS CRM™ enables you to create one corporate memory with end-to-end visibility to customer information. With it, you can integrate back-office processes directly with front-office processes.

IFS Maintenance

Our maintenance components are part of a complete enterprise asset management (EAM) system that enables you to anticipate and adapt to the rapidly changing demands of the world around you. Easy to work with and access, the solution contains the comprehensiveness and depth of functionality that you need for day-to-day maintenance requirements as well as continuous development and improvement.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness
IFS Overall Equipment Effectiveness™ enables you to increase revenue by making it easier to evaluate proposed improvements in equipment performance and to balance between KPIs to operate as effectively as possible. It manages all operational events such as availability, perform­ance, quality, and OEE. The solution has an easy-to-use graphical interface for operators and process engineers.
B2B Contracting
IFS B2B Contracting™ lets you communicate with approved and evaluated sub-contractors to run the tender process for service and maintenance outsourcing via a collaboration portal. You can more easily compare tenders, get better prices, and cut administration costs. Data quality also improves as information is entered only once. Winning contractors gain access to detailed instructions and report job execution via the portal. All data on finished jobs is then available from a single location.
Complex MRO
IFS Complex MRO™helps you provide superior customer service and reduce costs through leaner, more efficient MRO operations. By aligning personnel, material, and other resource requirements, you can reliably meet due dates and improve turnaround times.
Vehicle Information Management
IFS Vehicle Information Management™ makes integrated fleet and configuration management as well as regulatory compliance easier and more efficient. It supports serialized parts control, operational planning, preventive maintenance planning, and modification management.
Process Automation Integration
IFS Process Automation Integration™ helps you to manage the interaction with automation equipment from different vendors. It uses OLE for Process Control (OPC) and IFS Connect as a communication platform.
Preventive Maintenance
IFS Preventive Maintenance™ helps you manage schedules for regular preventive mainten­ance. You can organize and prepare all kinds of tasks in a facility. You can also schedule tasks according to your own maintenance parameters, such as machine condition, specific events, a calendar, or even whether an employee or contractor must perform the tasks.
Scheduling and Resourcing
IFS Scheduling and Resourcing™ enables you to plan resources more efficiently by streamlining work order scheduling and activity planning, providing a common way of planning preventive maintenance and initiating corrective maintenance. The graphical drag-and-drop interface lets you make changes quickly and simply. Through integration with IFS Human Resources, it enables you to automatically compare personnel needs with the availability of various competencies. Constraint-based scheduling for work orders is supported for more complex maintenance ­activities.
Work Order
IFS Work Order™ makes your maintenance operations more efficient, cutting direct and indirect costs and reducing the loss of revenue due to downtime. It manages all tasks affecting your maintenance organization—fault reporting, preparation, planning, execution, and final reporting.
Equipment
IFS Equipment™ manages and structures information about your machines, buildings, ventilation systems, transport systems or any asset you need to maintain. Fully integrated with IFS Asset Design, it provides a complete asset lifecycle management solution for both new facilities, ­operations and plant rebuilds.

IFS Business Enablers

Our business enabler components let you create and enhance relationships, taking advantage of the latest web-based technologies. You can give employees, customers, suppliers, and other partners personalized, accurate, real-time information through easy-to-use role-based portals and built-for-purpose mobile solutions. IFS’ business enabler components also provide integration with internal and external systems through web services while ensuring security, performance, and scalability.

Collaborative Solutions
IFS Collaborative Solutions™ enables you to set up a personalized portal for your customers, suppliers, and partners, giving them access to key collaborative processes in IFS Applications. These processes range from customer orders and support management to collaborative project and product lifecycle management (PLM) processes. The easy-to-use web-based portal offers real-time information regarding supply chain management (SCM) processes and online requests for quotation (RFQ).
Personal Portal
IFS Personal Portal™ provides all users—employees as well as business partners—with a role-based process portal to IFS Applications. It’s an easy-to-configure entry point that provides an overview to the information that people need to get their jobs done.
Mobile Solutions
IFS Mobile Solutions™is a unique device-independent mobile framework that helps you increase productivity and reduce operating costs by automatically capturing data in the field and synchronizing it with the business processes in IFS Applications.
System Integration & Web Services
IFS System Integration & Web Services™ enables you to integrate with IFS Applications using web services and other transport protocols, and interoperate with other integration solutions such Microsoft® BizTalk® Server and Oracle BPEL Process Manager®.
Event Management
IFS Event Management™ lets you extend the capabilities of IFS Personal Portal by proactively notifying people and initiating actions as business events take place. Integrated with IFS Connect, the application lets you subscribe to and receive notification through a wide range of communication channels, such as e-mail, SMS, or your own My Messages portlet.

Cross Functional Components

Our cross-functional components are a set of powerful tools designed for streamlining, simplifying, and handling critical processes found within most industries and businesses.

Accounting Rules
IFS Accounting Rules™ offers you a common set of rules for all manual and automatic postings within IFS Applications. You get an excellent overview that secures your company’s accounting model. Standardized interfaces make it easy for you to handle transactions sent to and received from IFS Applications and non-IFS business solutions.
Sustainability Management
IFS Sustainability Management™ gives you comprehensive support for all stages of a product’s lifecycle, through the entire supply chain to the use phase and end of life. It leverages existing data, lets you create material declarations and environmental product declarations, and serves as a base for environmental reporting such as GRI. Due to its flexible nature you can use it for all kinds of compliance purposes, e.g. REACh, RoHS or WEEE, as well as eco-label proofing.
Lifecycle Management
IFS Lifecycle Management™puts you firmly in control of whatever lifecycle you handle, be it asset, product, project, customer, service, or any other crucial business or operational flow. From design to disposal and beyond, all information and feedback are documented in the same system and easily available to anyone authorized to access them—today and well into the future. This means you can learn from the past, reduce errors and continuously improve your business processes.
Document Management
IFS Document Management™ gives you full control over your company’s documentation. It handles the creation and development process for documents and includes easy-to-use search tools. Other functionality includes workflow, templates, version and release management, ­support for invoice scanning (OCR) and redlining. IFS Document Management can satisfy any of your power users, yet its web-based interface is so user-friendly that new users can be up and running in a few minutes.
Business Intelligence
IFS Business Intelligence™ lets you decide how you want to set up your BI capabilities. You can operate your own strategy and integrate it seamlessly with IFS Applications. Or you can choose a complete solution from IFS. Either way, you get compete BI support for all your ­pre-sales and sales processes.
Quality Management
IFS Quality Management™ lets you define control plans, test and inspection instructions, standards for parts, suppliers, or manufacturing processes—or any combination of these. Samples are linked to shop orders, purchase orders, serial numbers, lot numbers, and time stamp processes. It gives you support for the most common SPC charts for variables and attributes, and capability indices can be calculated for any process. You can use overview forms with standard interfaces to feed third-party products for more advanced statistical calculations.
Case Management
IFS Case Management™ enables you to provide workflow-based case management with full traceability and swift dispatch. Your employees and partners can register issues, link them to relevant business objects, and route them using queues or direct dispatch. IFS Case Management enables you to make thorough analyses by bundling a set of prepackaged measures for all stages of the process.
Process Models
IFS Process Models™ provides you with an integrated package of tools, methods, and graphical models for developing and communicating your company’s work procedures, routines, and responsibilities. You can use it to tune and communicate your company processes while implementing IFS Applications. The graphical documents produced become models for your corporate structure and processes.